Last Updated on April 25, 2023 by Steffi Nell
Catch Roof, Driveway Runoff, and Help Keep Our Drinking Water Clean!
If it has been a particularly wet and snowy winter where I live. When it isn’t snowing lately, it has been raining. Walking across my backyard is like walking across a huge, muddy sponge. The only advantage I see to this situation is that nature is showing me the perfect spots to incorporate rain gardens into my landscape.
What is a rain garden?
Plants and trees in a rain garden are meant to store water until it can be absorbed by the soil. Rain gardens, also known as bio-infiltration basins, are gaining some traction as an eco-friendly landscape design feature that may help reduce stormwater runoff and pollution. It is possible to incorporate a rain garden into any landscape while yet ensuring that it serves its intended purpose.
Rain gardens are a growing trend in home and business landscaping, and an excellent way to take advantage of the water that runs off from the roof or driveway into your yard. Studies show that up to 50% of water pollution is a result of the chemical pesticides and fertilizers that we put on our yards and gardens. By creating a rain garden, you reduce the amount of stormwater that rushes into the local streams, rivers, and lakes, since the water filters naturally and slowly into the ground.
Rain Garden Vs Normal Garden
A rain garden differs from a regular garden in that it is saucer-shaped, not flat or mounded. Strategically placed where rain naturally collects or runs off in your yard, rain gardens are virtually maintenance-free gardens once they become established. Forget the exotic flower varieties that require lots of attention, and fill your rain garden with plants native to your area to create a beautiful rain garden.
Choose trees, shrubs, and low-maintenance perennials that have deep root systems that will provide channels for the water to flow into. Native plants will also attract butterflies and create a mini-wildlife preserve in your own yard. Mosquitoes will not be able to thrive in a well-designed rain garden since the water should be able to seep into the ground within a few days and it takes approximately a week for the water to evaporate, (at least, in this part of the country) for a mosquito egg to hatch and grow into a pestering, biting adult.
You need to ensure that the spot you have chosen will handle the stormwater. Dig a small hole before you dig the whole garden, and fill it with water. Watch how quickly the water soaks into the ground; if the water is still there after several hours it may not be a good spot for a rain garden without some soil amendment.
You will also want to avoid locating your rain garden in a spot that will get water runoff that contains a large amount of road or sidewalk salt in the winter. If these are the only spots you have that are suitable for a rain garden, plant salt-resistant varieties native to your area.
Steps to create a rain garden
Step 1 – To create a rain garden you need to dig a shallow hole in the spot where water runs off your roof or driveway and into the yard. (Be sure to check for buried utilities before you start digging). This spot needs to be at least ten feet away from the basement of your home.
To estimate the size of the rain garden you need to handle the stormwater, figure the square footage of the area where you have the runoff, and divide it by 10. For example, if the surface of your roof is 700 square feet, your rain garden needs to be 70 square feet in size to adequately handle the amount of water it will receive. Dig a shallow bowl-shaped depression that is about six to eight inches deep. The bottom should be flat, and the edges tapered up to meet the grass, so your hole resembles a saucer.
Step 2 – Once you’ve determined a good location for your rain garden, and have dug out the earth, fill the spot back in with a mixture of 20% topsoil, 20% compost, and 60% sand. Now you’re ready to fill your rain garden with trees, shrubs, and/or flowers that are native to your local ecosystem. Native plants will be able to establish the necessary root system to enhance filtration and will require little care after they are established. Non-native species will work but will require extra cultivation.
Step 3 – Water your rain garden immediately after planting and once a week, unless you have had at least an inch of rain during the week. After the rain garden is established, you will seldom need to give it any additional water. Maintenance will require only a small amount of weeding and thinning. You can mulch your rain garden if you want to give it a more finished look. Native plants will not require as much fertilizer or pesticides as non-native varieties will demand.
Could there be an easier way to create and care for a beautiful garden in your yard that is also environmentally friendly?